Home / Science – Tracking Progress

Science – Tracking Progress

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Biology level ladder
Untitled-1_clip_image002 B1 Cells and Tissues

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Know the basics to use a microscope to view prepared slides.

Label the main parts of plant and animal cells.

Prepare microscope slides and view them under the microscope.

Draw and label cells of plants and animals.

Prepare good microscope slides and use a microscope correctly to view at different magnifications.

Explain the function of different parts of plant and animal cells.

Explain how different cells are specialised for their functions.

Produce clear drawings of cells viewed under the microscope showing a representation of scale.

Demonstrate a good understanding of cell structure and function.

Untitled-1_clip_image004B2 Reproduction

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Identify the main organs of the male and female reproductive systems.

Describe the functions of flowers and seeds.

Describe sexual intercourse and fertilisation.

Label the main structures in a flower and describe how fertilisation occurs.

Describe the changes that occur from fertilisation to birth of a baby.

Describe the effects of maternal lifestyle on the development of her baby.

Describe the changes that occur in the menstrual cycle.

Describe the differences between wind and insect pollinated flowers.

Identify different types of fruits and seeds.

Give reasons why some people are unable to have a baby.

Describe some ways that infertility might be treated.

Explain the differences in wind and insect pollinated flowers.

Describe different methods of seed dispersal.

 

Untitled-1_clip_image006B3 Environment and Adaptation

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Name the main resources that plants and animals need to survive.

Describe how organisms are adapted to survive in their habitat.

Identify that a quadrat can be used to estimate the population of plants.

Interpret food chains and webs.

Describe resources that organisms may compete for.

Draw and interpret pyramids of numbers.

Explain factors that affect population size.

Use a quadrat to estimate plant populations.

Describe the effects of modern food production techniques on the environment.

Explain the interdependence of living organisms.

Explain bioaccumulation in food chains and some effects of this.

Untitled-1_clip_image008B4 Variation and Classification

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Give examples of genetic and environmental variation in humans. Explain variation caused environmental factors.

Collect and graphically represent data for examples of discontinuous variation.

State what the five vertebrate groups and are able to give examples of organisms.

Collect and graphically represent data for examples of continuous variation.

Describe the five kingdoms.

Give examples of some invertebrate and plant groups.

Describe how animals and plants can be bred to have useful characteristics.

State that some diseases are inherited.

Explain why organisms are classified into groups.

Explain the basics of genetic engineering and why it can be useful.

Untitled-1_clip_image010B5 Photosynthesis

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Draw some food chains.

State the raw materials needed for photosynthesis.

Test a leaf for starch.

Explain why most food chains begin with a plant.

Write the word equation for photosynthesis.

Describe how a plant gets all the raw materials needed for photosynthesis.

Give some ways in which a leaf is adapted for photosynthesis.

State that plants also need mineral salts.

Give examples of different uses of plants.

Interpret the results of starch tests.

Label a diagram showing a cross section of a leaf.

Explain the effects of different elements on plant growth.

Explain the importance of plants.

State the main differences between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.

Explain how a leaf is adapted for photosynthesis.

Untitled-1_clip_image012B6 Food and Digestion

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Name the food groups in a balanced diet.

Carry out food tests.

Label the main organs in the digestive system.

Describe what  a balanced diet is and sources of the main food groups.

Interpret the results of food tests.

Compare the energy content of different foods by burning them.

Describe some factors that affect how much energy a person needs.

Describe the functions of the main organs in the digestive system.

Investigate and calculate the amount of energy in different foods.

Describe how food is digested both physically and chemically using enzymes.

Describe how the small intestine is adapted for the absorption of food.

Evaluate methods used to calculate the amount of energy in foods.

Explain why foods need to be digested.

Explain how enzymes work.

Untitled-1_clip_image014_0000B7 Lungs and Gas Exchange

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Label the main organs in the breathing system.

Measure lung volume.

Identify the main organs in the circulatory system.

State that gas exchange occurs across the walls of the alveoli.

Describe how gases enter and leave leaves.

Name the main components of blood.

Explain the functions of cilia and mucus lining the trachea.

Describe the impact of asthma on the breathing system.

Relate a model of the lungs to breathing.

Describe the action of the heart as a double pump.

Describe the main function of the blood.

Explain how the lungs are adapted for efficient gas exchange.

Describe gas exchange surfaces in fish and insects.

Explain the changes that occur during breathing.

Untitled-1_clip_image016_0000B8 Respiration

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

State some uses of energy in living organisms.

Carry out experiments to show the differences between inhaled and exhaled air.

Describe some benefits of regular exercise.

State the word equation for aerobic respiration.

Explain the differences between inhaled and exhaled air.

Explain why yeast is used to make bread, wine and beer.

Sate the word equation for anaerobic respiration in animals and in yeast.

Describe the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration in animals.

Describe the uses of biogas generators.

Explain the effects of anaerobic respiration on the body during and after exercise.

Explain how a biogas generator works.

Untitled-1_clip_image018_0000B9 Muscles and Bones

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Identify the main structures in the skeletal system.

Measure muscle strength.

State the functions of the skeleton.

State that muscles contract to bring about movement.

Identify different types of joints.

Describe the different types of muscle cells. Know that muscles work in pairs.

Describe the structure of a synovial joint.

Explain antagonistic muscle action.

Untitled-1_clip_image020_0000B10 Inheritance and Evolution

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Give examples of genetic and environmental variation.

Describe a gene as a unit of inheritance.

State that all organisms are given a scientific name.

Identify where genes are found inside a cell.

Describe who Darwin was.

Recall what extinction is.

Describe what a species is.

Describe the important stages in evolution by natural selection.

Give examples of selective breeding of plants and animals.

Describe changes that can lead to extinction.

Explain why organisms are given a scientific name.

Explain the importance of biodiversity. State the basics of the history of genetic developments.

Apply Darwin’s theory of evolution e.g. to explain how tigers evolved to have stripes.

Describe the importance of gene banks.

 

Untitled-1_clip_image022_0000B11 Drugs and Health

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Identify alcohol and nicotine as being legal recreational drugs.

Calculate the number of units of alcohol in different drinks.

State the names of some illegal recreational drugs.

Describe the effects of smoking and alcohol on the body.

State that drugs are tested before they can be prescribed.

Describe the effects of the different drug types on the body, and give examples.

Describe the effects of some illegal drugs on the body.

Describe the main stages in drug testing.

Suggest reasons why some people misuse drugs and describe some effects of drug misuse on society.

 

Untitled-1_clip_image024_0000B12 Microbes

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Name the three groups of pathogens.

Suggest what people can do to reduce the spread of infection.

State that white blood cells defend the body against micro-organisms.

Give examples of diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses.

State some mechanisms the body has to reduce the chance of pathogens entering the body.

State that antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections.

Label diagrams to compare the cell structure of fungi, bacteria and viruses.

Describe ways in which white blood cells defend the body against microorganisms.

Describe how antibiotics were first discovered.

State that a vaccine gives immunity against a micro-organism.

Describe how a vaccine works.

Explain why new antibiotics need to be developed.

Chemistry level ladder

Untitled-1_clip_image002C1 Particles

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

List the different energy stores.

Describe different states of matter and changes of state in terms of the particle model.

Use the particle model diagrams to explain the properties of different states and to show the steps during changes of state and the process of diffusion. Explain different states of matter and changes of state in terms of energy and describe other features of matter including density, diffusion and gas pressure. Use the particle model to explain observable phenomenon of each state of matter including diffusion, gas pressure, density and buoyancy and elasticity.

Untitled-1_clip_image004C2 Atoms and Elements

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Recognise metal and non-metal elements and describe ways to measure their physical properties. Draw particle diagrams to represent the key terms atom, element, compound and molecule and use the periodic table to identify the chemical symbols of the elements.

Recall the unit of density.

Use the key terms atom, element, compound and molecule accurately with specific examples.

Calculate density from mass and volume data.

Explain how atomic structure can be used to predict physical and chemical properties of elements, including those elements which are diatomic molecules.

Untitled-1_clip_image006C3 Acids and Alkalis

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Recall examples of every day, and laboratory, acids and alkalis.

Recall the safety precautions needed and describe the use of simple indicators.

Recall the range of colours of Universal Indicator and identify the pH of some common examples.

Link concentration to safety and describe how a dilution can be carried out.

Describe a neutralisation reaction and list some uses of these reactions.

Explain how indicators or pH probes could be used to track a neutralisation reaction.

Explain the limitation of chemical indicators and the advantages of pH probes.

Outline the enhanced precautions necessary when transporting and working with corrosive substances

Untitled-1_clip_image008C4 Solutions

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Describe the properties of pure and impure substances.

Recall that mixtures can be made and this will affect the purity of a substance.

Draw particle diagrams to show they understand the terms dissolve, solute, solvent, solution and saturated.

Describe how to separate mixtures by the following methods; chromatography, freezing and melting, filtration and distillation

Use the key terms dissolve, solute, solvent, solution, accurately to explain the conservation of mass during dissolving.

Use the terms saturated and solubility to describe how different substances may dissolve in water. Recognise the unit of concentration.

Use the key terms miscible and immiscible accurately and can relate their understanding of solutions to mixtures of liquids.

Use values of concentration to compare different solutions.

Untitled-1_clip_image010C5 Simple Chemical Reactions

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Describe observations that show chemical change and suggest ways to measure the changes.

Identify from particle diagrams the rearrangement of atoms in a chemical reaction.

Describe possible methods for collecting gases and results of common gas tests.

Use particle diagrams to show the rearrangement of atoms in a chemical reaction.

Use particle diagrams to predict the products of chemical reactions.

Use word equations to represent a chemical reaction.

Select the most appropriate gas collection methods and tests.

Use balanced symbol equations to represent a chemical reaction

Untitled-1_clip_image012C6 Compounds                                                                                                                        Methane   CH4

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

State the properties for some common compounds and elements.

Match chemical formulae to chemical names.

Compare the properties of compounds with those of elements made of the same atoms.

Use the terms mixture and compound accurately.

Describe some methods for separating compounds.

Recognise the atoms in a substance from a given name or chemical formula.

State the law of the conservation of matter.

Recognise the numbers of each different type of atom in a compound from a given formula and can calculate relative formula mass.

Describe the law of the conservation of matter and give examples.

Create, from given formulae, particle diagrams and balanced equations to explain the law of conservation of matter.

Untitled-1_clip_image004C7 Periodic Table

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Recognise key areas of the Periodic Table, namely metals and non-metals, the noble gases and groups 1, 2 and 7. Describe how repeating patterns in the elements led to the development of the Periodic Table.

State that groups show trends in how quickly they react.

Describe why Mendeleev’s approach was so important.

Use given trends in reactivity to make predictions about other elements in the group.

Explain the trend in reactivity of Group 1 and Group 7 elements.

Use balanced symbol equations to give examples of reaction used to show trends and patterns.

Untitled-1_clip_image015C8 Extracting Metals

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Use the reactivity series to compare reactions of given examples.

State some properties of metals.

Describe methods of extraction, including reacting with carbon and electrolysis, and can relate the properties of metals to this wide range of uses. Relate the method of extraction to the position on the reactivity series.

Use word equations to show the chemical reactions that occur during extraction.

Explain the properties of metals based on their atomic structure and bonding.

Untitled-1_clip_image017C9 Reactions of Acids

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

State that acids can react with metals, metal oxides, metal carbonates and alkalis.

Describe observations from acid reactions.

Name the salt produced in an acid reaction.

State that metal oxides may also be acidic or alkaline.

Describe the steps needed to make a pure salt.

Write word equations for acid reactions.

Describe the trend in the acidity of metal oxides and use this to make predictions.

Explain the steps involved in making a pure salt.

State that neutralisation reactions involve the formation of ions.

Write balanced symbol equations for all acid reactions and reaction with oxygen to form metal oxides.

Use the concept of dissociation and using ions in equations, and explain the changes during neutralisation reactions.

Untitled-1_clip_image019C10 Describing Chemical Reactions

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Identify different types of chemical reaction.

Describe observations that could be made during a chemical reaction.

State that temperature, catalysts surface area and concentration may affect the rate of a chemical reaction.

Recognise chemical reactions as combustion, thermal decomposition, oxidation and reduction and displacement.

Describe that reaction involves energy changes and use the terms endothermic and exothermic accurately.

Describe methods to monitor the rate of a chemical reaction.

Write word equations for different types of chemical reaction.

Relate energy changes to the bond being broken and made.

Use particle diagrams to explain the effect of temperature, catalysts, surface area and concentration on the rate of a chemical reaction.

Explain why some reactions are endothermic and others are exothermic.

Explain why temperature has a greater effect on rate than surface area and concentration.

Use balanced symbol equations throughout.

Untitled-1_clip_image021C11 Earth and Atmosphere

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Describe the layers of the Earth.

Describe rocks as igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic.

State that humans can have impact on the Earth and the importance of recycling.

Describe changes in the rock cycle.

Summarise the carbon cycle and how humans may affect this.

Relate recycling to reducing a product’s carbon footprint.

Describe the composition of the atmosphere and the importance of ozone.

Relate carbon dioxide levels to global warming and how humans can impact carbon dioxide levels.

Explain changes in the Earth using the idea of convection currents, reactive molecules in the Earth’s upper atmosphere and the effect of carbon dioxide levels on global temperatures.

Evaluate evidence of human impact and give balanced views on factors affecting a product’s carbon footprint.

Untitled-1_clip_image023C12 Innovative Materials

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Give examples of innovative materials and link properties of products to the choice of material. Compare suitability of materials and give examples of products made from ceramics, polymers, composites, smart and nano materials. Describe reasons for designing new materials and the influence that new materials have had on key products. Explain the benefits of innovative materials.

Evaluate the impact of innovative materials on financial cost, health, environmental cost and ethical considerations.

Physics level ladder

Untitled-1_clip_image002P1 Energy Transfers

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

List the energy stores, and give examples.

State the law of conservation of energy, giving an example of where the ‘lost’ energy has gone to.

Plot a graph to show how temperature changes with time, e.g. a ‘cooling curve’.

Recall that energy can be transferred from one store to another.

Explain the law of conservation of energy and suggest ways in which energy may be ‘lost’ from a system.

Relate two devices in terms of their power, by correctly stating which is more powerful than the other.

Plot an appropriate graph of temperature against time in an investigation into different types of insulation.

Recall the four different ways that energy can be shifted from one store to another, giving examples.

Compare two devices in terms of which is more or less efficient and why.

Plot an appropriate graph of temperature against time in an investigation into different types of insulation, including use of best fit lines.

Find the power of a device from the energy it uses over a certain time.

Compare two devices in terms of the ratio of their powers.

Calculate the efficiency of a device and work out the amount of energy or power it ‘loses’.

Untitled-1_clip_image004P2 Forces and Effects

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Recall that a force can change an object’s speed, direction, or shape.

Name some of the common forces seen in everyday life.

Describe friction as a force which opposes motion.

Name the most commonly used forces, i.e. applied forces (push and pull), gravity, friction, magnetism, electrostatic force, air resistance.

Label the forces acting on an object in a force diagram.

Explain the difference between a contact and a non-contact force, and name some examples of each.

Recall that a resultant force is needed to cause acceleration.

Can name the less commonly used forces, i.e. support force, upthrust, surface tension, tension.

Add or subtract co-linear forces to find the size and direction of the resultant force.

Explain the difference between elastic and plastic deformation.

Identify which regions of a graph of extension against force are due to elastic and which are due to plastic deformation.

Give examples of situations in which friction is useful, and in which friction is a nuisance.

Use a graph of extension against force to prove or disprove Hooke’s Law for the object being stretched.

Calculate extension for a given force.

Explain how stretching and releasing a spring transfers energy into and out of its elastic store.

Untitled-1_clip_image006P3 Electricity

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Recall some basic electrical circuit symbols and the differences between series and parallel circuits.

Recall the difference between conductors and insulators, and materials for each.

Recall that a potential difference and a complete circuit are both necessary for a current to flow.

Recall the units for current, p.d. and resistance.

Recall that an electric current is a flow of electric charge, and state the correct direction for the flow of electrons.

Correctly position an ammeter and a voltmeter in a circuit.

Recall that a larger p.d. across a conductor will make a larger current flow through it.

Predict how differing values of resistance will affect the amount of current that flows.

Predict how changing the thickness and length of a wire will affect its resistance (qualitative).

Recall the rules for current and p.d. in series circuits.

Recall and use the relationship: p.d. = I × R.

Recall the rules for current and p.d. in parallel circuits.

Apply the rules for current and p.d. in series and parallel circuits to find the missing value in a given circuit.

Untitled-1_clip_image008P4 Energy Resources

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Recall that we receive energy from the sun in the form of light and infra-red radiation.

List the three fossil fuels, and can describe how fossil fuels were formed.

Recall some typical uses of fossil fuels, and the names of some fuels derived from crude oil.

Recall that the burning of fossil fuel has led to increased levels of CO2 in the air, and that this is causing global warming.

List a good number of renewable energy resources.

State that the energy stored in fossil fuels originally came from the sun.

Describe the difference between renewable and non-renewable energy resources, and recall which energy resources are which.

Describe the difference between HEP, tidal power and wave power and state where the energy comes from in each case.

Describe the workings of a typical power station.

Describe how certain renewable energy resources are harnessed.

Give suitable locations for different types of power plants, with reasons.

List and explain the pros and cons of different types of energy generation.

 

Untitled-1_clip_image010P5 Magnets and Electromagnets

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Name some common magnetic materials and realise that not all metals are magnetic.

Recall that a pole is the strongest part of a magnet, and that there are two poles on every magnet.

State some uses of electromagnets.

Identify that repulsion, not attraction, is the test of whether an object is a magnet, rather than a magnetic material.

Recall how soft and hard magnetic materials make temporary and permanent magnets respectively.

Explain why the earth’s geographical north pole is a magnetic south pole.

Trace a magnetic field using iron filings or plotting compasses.

Build an electromagnet and test ways of increasing its strength.

List the stages in the operation of an electric bell.

Use the domain theory of magnetism to explain magnetisation and demagnetisation.

Recall the pattern of the magnetic field produced by a straight wire, a flat coil and a solenoid.

Explain the operation of a loudspeaker in terms of magnetic fields.

Explain the operation of an electric motor in simple terms.

Untitled-1_clip_image012P6 Motion

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

State that a force can change an object’s speed or direction.

Use the equation: speed = distance ÷ time.

Calculate the relative speed of two moving objects.

Recall that if the forces on an object are balanced it is in equilibrium, with a constant speed and direction.

Compare forwards and backwards forces to find the direction of the resultant force, and use this to predict the direction of acceleration.

Plot and interpret graphs of distance against time.

Explain and apply the relationship between the mass of an object and its weight.

Recall that the acceleration of free fall does not depend on an object’s weight.

Plot and interpret graphs of speed against time.

Describe the effects that air resistance and streamlining have on how an object moves.

Relate the forces acting on a parachutist to a speed-time graph of his/her motion.

Recall the conditions for terminal velocity.

State that a force on an object at 90° to its direction of motion will make it move in a circle at a constant speed.

Untitled-1_clip_image014P7 Domestic and Static Electricity

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Recall the charge combinations that attract or repel due to the electrostatic force.

Recall that the p.d. of mains electricity is always 230V.

Recall that a high power appliance draws more current from the mains than a low power one.

Calculate the cost of the electricity used from two meter readings and the price per unit.

Explain why it is easier to charge an insulator than to charge a conductor.

Describe an electric current as a flow of charge.

Recall that we pay for the electrical energy we use, not for the power of the device.

Explain how objects can become charged by friction in terms of transfer of electrons.

Explain why the cable to an appliance which draws a large current needs a thicker wire than the cable to an appliance which draws a smaller current.

Recall and use the relationship: power = current × potential difference.

Recall and use the relationship: energy = power × time to find energy in both joules and kilowatt-hours.

Describe the situations in which we want to measure energy in joules and in which we want to measure energy in kilowatt-hours.

Explain how objects can become charged by induction.

Untitled-1_clip_image016P8 Waves and Sound

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

State that light travels much faster than sound, and over short distances can be considered to be almost instantaneous.

Recall that a wave involves a transfer of energy without the overall movement of the medium.

Distinguish between transverse and longitudinal waves and give examples.

Measure the wavelength and amplitude of a transverse wave, and the wavelength of a longitudinal wave.

Recall that sound waves require a medium to propagate, while light waves do not.

Explain how sound waves are produced and propagated. Recall and explain some uses of ultrasound.

Explain the meaning of frequency, and equate a higher frequency sound with a higher pitch.

Equate a longer wavelength sound with a lower note, and understand the implications of this for the size of musical instruments.

Recall that if the frequency of a wave doubles, its wavelength halves.

Compare in simple terms the pitch and loudness (or frequency and amplitude) of two musical notes from their oscilloscope traces.

Explain why the speed of sound is much greater in solids and liquids than in air.

Untitled-1_clip_image018P9 Light

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Explain the difference between luminous and non-luminous objects. State that light travels in straight lines.Recall that sound waves require a medium to propagate, while light waves do not.Recall the law of reflection. Compare an object with its image in a mirror.

Explain the difference between specular and diffuse reflection.

Describe how a convex lens focuses light.

Recall that light changes direction when it passes from one medium to another, and that this is called refraction.

Explain how we are able to see a non-luminous object.

Explain the difference between a real and a virtual image.

Describe how a pinhole camera and a lens camera form an image.

Describe how the primary colours of light combine to make the secondary colours.

Draw a ray diagram to show how an image is formed in a mirror.

Explain how surfaces appear coloured by reflecting or absorbing combinations of the primary colours.

Untitled-1_clip_image020P10 Application of Forces

Level  4

Level 5

Level 6

Level 7

Recall that a see-saw with different weights on either side could balance, if the heavier weight is closer to the pivot.

Predict whether an object will float or sink from knowledge of its density compared to that of water.

Use the equations: turning moment of a force = force × perpendicular distance from pivot, density = mass ÷ volume, pressure = force ÷ area.

Explain why someone may wish to use a lever, and explain the operation of some typical levers.

Give examples of situations in which a high or a low pressure is required.

Apply the principle of moments to determine whether an object is balanced, or to work out an unknown force or distance.

Recall that upthrust is equal to the weight of water displaced by an object.

Explain why pressure increases with depth in a fluid.

Explain the effect of a differing internal and external pressure on an object.

Explain upthrust in terms of the water pressure at differing depths on an object.

Untitled-1_clip_image022P11 Heat Transfer

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Recall the three methods of heat transfer.

State some good and bad conductors of heat.

Explain why a conductor or an insulator would be desirable in a given situation.

Recall that heat flows from hotter objects to colder ones, and that this involves a transfer of energy.

State what gaining or losing heat does to the temperature or state of a material.

Use the terms conductor and insulator correctly in the context of heat transfer.

Explain how heat transfers via each of the three methods.

Apply knowledge of convection currents to real life situations.

Apply knowledge of good and bad absorbers of heat radiation to real life situations.

Explain why metals are good conductors of heat due to movement of free electrons.

Apply knowledge of good and bad emitters of heat radiation to real life situations.

Untitled-1_clip_image024P12 Exploring Space

Level  4

Level  5

Level 6

Level 7

Describe how a solar eclipse occurs.

Describe how a lunar eclipse occurs.

State some of the stages in a star’s lifetime.

Recall some of the uses of artificial satellites.

Recall that human understanding of the solar system has developed over time.

Explain why space exploration has mainly involved robots rather than humans.

State the meaning of the term ‘light year’.

State that, due to the finite speed of light, we see objects further away from us as they were longer ago.

Describe how the tilt of the earth’s axis gives rise to the seasons.

Describe how the moon’s orbit gives rise to the phases of the moon.

Recall in order all of the stages in a star’s lifetime.

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